Thursday, May 21, 2020
Background Macbeth is a dark play, both literally and symbolically, the tone of the play is sinister and its central characters are evil. Wicked witches and the supernatural influence the action which is characterised by multiple bloody deaths. When Shakespeare wrote Macbeth in 1606 James I had been King of England for three years. The king had previously been James VI of Scotland. King James symbolised the union of the Scottish and English crowns, a union to which Shakespeare refers in the play. It was well known that the new king was fascinated by witchcraft; Shakespeare might have been trying to win his approval by introducing the figures of the three weird sisters into the play. Macbeth was first performed at Hampton Court PalaceÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦He was defeated in battle near Aberdeen by Malcolm III, the son of Duncan I, who had invaded Scotland with the help of Edward the Confessor, King of England. Malcolm slaughtered Macbeth s family so that his own kingship would be stabilised. This marked the end of the purely Celtic, exclusively barbaric Scottish people as it led to the gradual breaking down of barriers between England and Scotland and to the introduction of English ways and customs. Shakespeare never let historical fact get in the way of a good story. He changed several key aspects of the original story, either to intensify his drama or to ensure political correctness. As an example of the latter, Shakespeare s Macbeth, who commits the greatest of all crimes by murdering his king, finds he cannot live with himself and the consequences of his actions. He has rebelled against God and the order of creation; he becomes stricken with guilt and canÃ¢â¬â¢t live with himself. Banquo Banquo s role in the original source for Macbeth was as Macbeth s co-conspirator. In Shakespeare s play, he is depicted instead as Macbeth s rival; the role of fellow plotter passed to Lady Macbeth. Like Macbeth, Banquo is open to human yearnings and desires: He is, for example, just as keen to hear what the Witches have in store for him in Act I, Scene 3. He is kept from sleep by his dreams of the Witches. Nevertheless, Banquo is a sympathetic figure for several reasons. First, he is ignorant of
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Susan Teddrick A. McCreary The Chicago School of Professional Psychology Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Introduction Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a psychotherapeutic approach that involves conjoint therapy sessions of with the child and the parent. This approach is employed among children and/or adolescents that are experiencing emotional and behavioral difficulties that are significant and related to life events that are traumatic (Cohen, Mannarino, Deblinger, 2012). TF-CBT is a components-based model of treatment that includes intervention that are trauma-sensitive and cognitive behavioral, family and humanistic therapyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Q.1 Trauma-Informed Assessment of Susan Trauma-informed assessment comprises of the evaluation of the means by which the functioning of a child or youth might have been affected due a traumatic experience (Kerig, 2013). Three dimensions exist of trauma that the Trauma-Informed assessment might focus on. These include whether the child or youth has been exposed to events that are potentially traumatizing and whether displays symptoms that are linked to post traumatic stress. Finally, whether the youth meets the criteria for a formal Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) diagnosis as indicated in DSM-IV (Kerig, 2013). Based on the case study provided Susan has qualifies as a youth that has had a traumatic experience on all three levels of focus in a trauma-informed assessment. Susan has been exposed to events that are traumatic. These are, for example, she has been for a long time been sexually abused by her father and her father frequently physically abused her mother over trivial issues and she even witnessed her parents fighting to the extent that her mother was hospitalized due to a head injury inflicted by her father. In addition, Susan displays symptoms that are linked to post traumatic stress disorder. These include the continuous engagement in daily physical altercations, sleeping difficulties, development of depression, drug experimentation, and aggressive behavior
Table Of Content 1. Introduction Planning 3 2. Planning 3 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Planning and Control or any similar topic only for you Order Now 1Goals3 2. 2Plans4 2. 2. 1 The Planning Process5 3. Controlling the Management Process6 3. 1Steps in Control6 3. 2Areas of Control7 3. 3Characteristics of Control7 4. Conclusion8 Reference 1. Introduction Of the four fundamental tasks of management I have chosen to discuss the first and forth steps of management which are Planning and Controlling the management process. Planning is the basis for the rest of the management functions. The two core components in the planning stage are goals and planning process. Goals are the destination of the organisation, they indicate where the organization is heading, planning is the route mapped out to achieve the goals, the steps taken and the changes that are to be made in order for the organization to reach said goals Planning Planning promotes co-ordination in the company where all departments work together to reach the pre-determined goal. Therefore teamwork and interdepartmental co-operation and communication are essential to work toward a primary goal. Management plan and formulate goals which are later used to assess control . The cost of the planning process may be time consuming. A lot of time and energy is needed to plan and strategize goals, this may cause a backlog in the management schedule. Planning may become rigid, not allowing any time to stray from the plans even the budget does not allow for it. The formal planning phase may also become a routine rather than viewed as a challenge thus the initial vigour and creatively may diminish over time. 1. 1Goals Goals are the starting point of any planning phase; they start from a mission statement and grow more specific. Organisations may have multiple goals the type of goal set is influenced by the level at which it is set. Goals are either stated publicly or not, this is determined by the degree of openness of the company. Official goals are declared publically to the media. Operative goals are private goals which are kept within the organization. Criteria for effective goals to improve chances of success achieving goals, managers should ensure that goals are not ambiguous. The SMART framework states that goals should be specific Goals should be Specific, it indicates what the goal relates to -Measurable , result can be evaluated in quantifiable terms -Attainable, challenging yet realistic -Relevant, relates to organisations mission and strategy -Time Bound, specified time line to instil a sense of urgency A goal setting technique : Management by objectives is a technique whereby the individual and Management goals are integrated toward on primary goal. Advantages of MBO The efforts of managers and employees focus on attaining organisational goals The organisations performance can improve Employees are motivated Individual goals align with organisational goals Disadvantages of MBO Constant change in the environment can cause frequent change in organisational goals Poor relations between managers and employees reduce the effectiveness of MBO Operational goals may displace strategic goals The organisational culture may discourage effective use of MBO MBO can result in too much paperwork 2. 2 Plans Plans are the Ã¢â¬ËblueprintsÃ¢â¬â¢ of achieving goals. It is an indicator of how goals are to be reached. It specifies resources to be used, the period in which the plans must be implemented. Managers consider many alternate plans of actions and choose one or a few plan of action that may be most feasible this includes External factors such as environment and market stability, strengths and weaknesses of the company and staff as a whole as It is best to work to the strengths of the company taking into account skills, patent, capital and the image of the organisation. 2. 2. 1 The planning process Variables set the parameters within which the managers can formulate realistic organisational goals and plans. Planning in context, uses five variables namely, purpose, Mission statement, Environment, Values of Managers and Experience of Managers. In each organisation the purpose must be clear. The organisation must take into account its social responsibility, job creation and how to improve its product. The mission statement states a clear defined goal. The organisation is constantly adapting the economic environment may cause the plan to change, money may not be available to attain goal, a new route must be planned. Thus with Managers the organisational culture and work ethic must be in line with the organisations view and have relevant experience. Establish a goal, several different alternative plans are looked at of which the most feasible plan is selected. This plan is then implement and monitored, called reactive planning. Planning happens on three levels of the organisation, top level Ã¢â¬â long term strategic goals, middle level- medium term tactical goals, and lower level Ã¢â¬â short term operational goals for their department. There are different types of goals and plans. Strategic, Tactical and Operational. Strategic goals and plans involve the company as a whole long term goals and not specific function or operation. These aim to improve the image of the company and market the product to the masses to increase business opportunity strengthen the company and foundation in the market place by increasing sales and demand of the product. Tactical Goals, for middle management for functional area goals and how to carry out these tasks. These are medium or short term goals derived from the long term goals and are focused goals. Operational goals , are short term goals no longer than a year that deal with the day to day running of the company which are unit goals and operational standards. These require programs that are followed, targets to be reached, budgets and projects that need to be completed. 2. Controlling the management process The forth step of fundamental management where the assessment of actual performance against planned performance initiates a new cycle of planning, organising , leading and control. Organisations use controls to ensure that they progressing toward their goals. Although it is the final step it forms the basis of a new cycle as it gives feedback as to what is working and what needs to changed. The purpose of control is to align goals and actual performance. Control helps organisations adapt to environmental change, helps limit error, ensures companies cope with growing complexity most importantly It helps minimizes financial implications. 3. 1 Steps In Control Establish performance standards at strategic point and is a mirror image of planning, as the plans indicate the goals and setting of standards or norms necessary for control. Measuring actual performance is based on assessing quantifiable, reliable results before any valid comparisons are made. Evaluate deviations the results are measured to assess if the target is near or far from the goal. At this stage the gap between below average, level or exceeds expectations are evaluated Take corrective action, the results are evaluated and strategy adjusted to achieve required result. 3. 2 Areas of control Most organisations define areas of four different types of resources, Generally human, financial physical and information resources are deployed to achieve specific goals. Physical control, are the inventory items like raw material deliveries on time so that production is not interrupted. Quality control, involves the product is made without fault. Human resources involves orderly placement and selection of staff , using regular job performance evaluations to make sure the standards are not slipping. Information resources are the accurate marketing and forecasting of the product, financial resources are the budgeting. Financial resources are at the centre of control as it enables and restricts the amount of control and planning executed by the company due to affordability. 3. 3 Characteristics of effective control system Integration Ã¢â¬â control system is more effective when it is integrated with planning. The closer links between control and planning the better the eventual control system will be. Flexibility Ã¢â¬â the system should be able to accommodate change . adjustments that are not regarded as deviations but rather revision of plans. Accuracy Ã¢â¬â provides an accurate objective, errors and deviations should not be concealed in the data. Timeliness control data should be supplied regularly as needed and not be taken hastily. Simplicity Ã¢â¬â a complex system is viewed as an obstacle because they can have a negative influence on the sound judgement of competent managers. Too much information can be demotivating and place great demand on time and attention of management which means that the control will become too expensive. Conclusion. The Importance of Goals are that they are unidirectional, meaning that the company moves towards a primary goal using a clearly formulated action. Planning ensures that the company has the resources to reach their goals and controlling the processes is the ever changing adapting process to keep the company on track to achieve the intended goal. REFERENCE : INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS MANAGEMENT; TOIT, ERASMUS, STRYDOM; OXFORD UNIVERSITY ; EIGHTH EDITION How to cite Planning and Control, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
The Electoral College When the Constitutional Convention gathered in 1784 they had the difficult task of determining how our government should be assembled and what systems we should use to elect them. They quickly decided congress should have the powers to pass laws and the people should elect these people to ensure they are following the will of the people. But who should elect the president? Congress was the initial choice of most of the framers, but then they realized they first dilemma; by having congress elect the president, he would be loyal only to congress and not the people. The second and most logically thought was to have the people elect the president. However, this too was a problem in the eyes of most of the framers. They felt that people were prone to being rash and emotional and therefore could not be trusted to make a wise decision. So then congress settled on the final choice, which was to be a compromise between the smaller and larger states, which would ensure that the president would be fairly and wisely selected and that smaller states would have the same power as larger states. This system is called the Electoral College. In the Electoral College, each state is granted one vote for every representative and one for every senator, thus ensuring that each state would be equally represented when electing the president. However, the same question arises every four years, are the ideals that were used to create the Electoral College system over 200 years ago still applicable today or have that outlived their intended purposes? In order to answer that we must first explore the purposes for setting up the Electoral College and then determine how relevant it is to today. The first purpose for setting up the Electoral College was to ensure that congress did not have too much power. When the system of government was finally decided on, our founding fathers understood the importance of the balance of power within the three branches of the government. They called this system checks and balances. This system was set up to ensure that the government would remain loyal to the people and loyal to their states (Hamilton). In The Federalist Papers, No. 68, Alexander Hamilton discusses the importance of having the president elected by the Electoral College. He said that in order to ensure that we do not end up with the same problems that America had with the monarch of England, it was important that the balance of power was spread throughout the government and that no one portion have too much power. Another reason Alexander Hamilton gave for not having congress elect the president was that the founders wanted to reassure states that they had not given up all their power to a federal government. In order to ratify the constitution, the framers knew that it would have to be approved in each of the thirteen states. They also knew that these states would be skeptical of a powerful central government that would have the ability to take away all their rights. So, they would have to make sure that each of these states was comfortable with the amount of power given to each branch of the central government. This point is also clearly evident today. During the election this year, the Republican Party ran on a platform that included the premise of a smaller government. This platform was in line with an MSNBC poll that was taken in July 2000, which asked this question, Do you think it is important to limit the size of the federal government? Over 72 percent of the 4,143 people surveyed said they believed that it is important to limit the size of the government. So even in the age of government programs which help support the citizens of this nation, people still understand the importance of keeping our government small. The second purpose for the Electoral College was to give smaller states the same rights and powers as the larger states. There are two primary reasons why the smaller states have the same, if not more, power than the larger states when it comes to electing the president. The first is, a presidential candidate must
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Lets Have A Truce essays After reading Lets Have a Truce by Andrew Sullivan, I see his point of view and what hes trying to get across to the American people. I know that my opinion on this paper is going to be different than that of the other students taking this class, but here is what I obtained. It seems that most people get side tracked at what is going on in the world while campaigning is going on. Republicans and Democrats alike get so caught up in picking the right one that we are oblivious to what is going on in the world. Terrorists are still a threat while the candidate you want or the candidate you dont want is running. Another point that Mr. Sullivan made is about how divided this Country has really become over the years. It seems that if the person that you didnt want in office is now the President, you criticize and complain about the job hes doing. What you should do, rather, is try to put your good attitude in front of your bad for the better of the Country. Its not going to make a difference how many times you call the President an idiot, its not going to change anything. I myself am a Democrat, and I know that Ive done my fair share of bashing on George W. Bush, but in the long run I just hope that the Country benefits from the time hes spent as our leader. I will even go as far as saying that I respect his determination of trying to win the war on terrorism. But, I do not respect the fact that we have been in this war for so long and WHAT are we trying to accomplish here? As far as Im concerned our goal in Iraq is the wrong one. We want oil. Iraq isnt even the leading country with oil, so w hy are we there? What we need is a Republican candidate and a Democrat candidate working side by side to accomplish more than what has been done in the past. Differences aside, I believe it would be beneficial. The main point that Sullivan made i...
Monday, March 2, 2020
The Middle Kingdom Period of Ancient Egypt Running from the end of the first intermediate period to the start of the second, the Middle Kingdom lasted from about 2055-1650 B.C. It was composed of part of the 11th Dynasty, the 12th Dynasty, and current scholars add the first half of the 13th Dynasty. Predynastic EgyptPharaohs of the Predynastic Period, Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom Middle Kingdom Capital When 1st Intermediate Period Theban king Nebhepetra Mentuhotep II (2055-2004) reunited Egypt, the capital was at Thebes. Twelfth Dynasty king Amenemhat moved the capital to a new town, Amenemhat-itj -tawy (Itjtawy), in the Faiyum region, possibly near the necropolis at Lisht. The capital remained at Itjtawy for the rest of the Middle Kingdom. Middle Kingdom Burials During the Middle Kingdom, there were three types of burials: surface graves, with or without coffinshaft graves, usually with coffintombs with coffin and sarcophagus. Mentuhotep IIs mortuary monument was at Deir-el-Bahri in western Thebes. It was not the saff-tomb type of previous Theban rulers nor the reversion to Old Kingdom types of 12th Dynasty rulers. It had terraces and verandahs with groves of trees. It may have had a square mastaba tomb. His wives tombs were in the complex. Amenemhat II built a pyramid on a platform the White Pyramid at Dahshur. Senusret IIIs was a 60-m high mud-brick pyramid at Dashur. Acts of the Middle Kingdom Pharaohs Mentuhotep II made military campaigns in Nubia, which Egypt had lost by the 1st Intermediate Period. So did Senusret I under whom Buhen became Egypts southern border. Mentuhotep III was the first Middle Kingdom ruler to send an expedition to Punt for incense. He also built fortifications at Egypts northeastern border. Senusret instituted the practice of building of monuments at every cult site and paid attention to the cult of Osiris. Khakheperra Senusret II (1877-1870) developed the Faiyum irrigation scheme with dykes and canals. Senusret III (c.1870-1831) campaigned in Nubia and built fortresses. He (and Mentuhotep II) campaigned in Palestine. He may have gotten rid of the nomarchs who had helped cause the breakdown leading to the 1st Intermediate Period. Amenemhat III (c.1831-1786) engaged in mining operations that made heavy use of Asiatics and may have led to the settling of Hyksos in the Nile Delta. At Fayum a dam was built to channel Nile overflow into a natural lake to be used as needed for irrigation. Feudal Hierarchy of the Middle Kingdom There were still nomarchs in the Middle Kingdom, but they were no longer independent and lost power over the period. Under the pharaoh was the vizier, his chief minister, although there may have been 2 at times. There were also chancellor, overseer, and governors of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. Towns had mayors. The bureaucracy was supported by taxes assessed in kind on yields (e.g., farm produce). Middle and lower class people were forced into labor which they could avoid only by paying someone else to do it. The pharaoh also gained wealth from mining and trade, which appears to have extended to the Aegean. Osiris, Death, and Religion In the Middle Kingdom, Osiris became the god of the necropolises. Pharaohs had participated in mystery rites for Osiris, but now [rivate individuals also took part in these rites. During this period, all people were thought to have the spiritual force or ba. Like the rites of Osiris, this had formerly been the province of kings. Shabtis were introduced. Mummies were given cartonnage masks. Coffin texts adorned the coffins of ordinary people. Female Pharaoh There was a female pharaoh in the 12th Dynasty, Sobekneferu/Neferusobek, daughter of Amenemhat III, and possibly half-sister of Amenemhet IV. Sobekneferu (or possibly Nitocris of the 6th Dynasty) was the first ruling queen of Egypt. Her rule of Upper and Lower Egypt, lasting 3 years, 10 months and 24 days, according to the Turin Canon, was the last one in the 12th Dynasty. Sources The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. by Ian Shaw. OUP 2000.Detlef Franke Middle Kingdom The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Ed. Donald B. Redford, OUP 2001
Friday, February 14, 2020
Investment Decision Making - Article Example In Canada, the market for SRI is over $50 billion in institutional and mutual fund assets,(1) representing approximately 4% of total assets professionally managed and 50 funds. The SRI asset base is growing at 40% per year, compared to the non-SRI growth rate of less than 15% per year. Though growing rapidly, the Canadian SRI asset base is substantially below SRI activity in the United States, which represents over US$2.2 trillion in SRI assets (13% of total assets)/and the 300 funds in Europe utilizing SRI strategies. Numerous studies and surveys have dearly shown that investor interest in environmental social and governance issues has increased dramatically in the past five years. In addition, it has become clear that investor sophistication has evolved beyond the relatively simple process of excluding companies that are engaged in certain "nonethical" businesses. Furthermore, the investment performance of typical negative-screened SRI funds has been inconsistent over the past ten years, causing many investors to seek more rigorous and quantitative investment strategies, such as sustainable development investing, that provide both top performance and social responsibility. Corporate Sustainable DevelopmentThe term sustainable development was originally proposed by the United Nations in the 1987 publication Our Common Future. 3 From a corporate perspective, sustainable development refers to companies that are committed to minimizing the environmental footprint of their operations, while simultaneously contributing to the economic and social advancement of communities in which they operate. To act upon this commitment, companies engage hundreds of sustainable development initiatives. From an environmental perspective, these may include energy conservation measures, waste reduction programs and pollution prevention initiatives. From a social perspective companies may schedule community outreach meetings, create the position of "ethics officer," reduce noise and odor pollution, and provide support for school lunch and recreation programs: Economic commitment often includes local procurement and hiring mandates, providing scholarships, for higher education and transferable skills training, and community infrastructure improvement. Worldwide, companies representing all, industry sectors practice sustainable development. Examples of notable Canadian sustainable development Companies include Abitibi-Consolidated Inc., Dofasco Inc., Falconbridge Ltd., Noranda Inc., Nortel Networks Corporation, Royal Bank of Canada, Suncor Energy Inc., Telus Corporation, TransAlta Corporation and Westcoast Energy Inc. These companies embrace sustainable development for essentially one reason--to have a positive impact on share price. Good BusinessBut how specifically does sustainable development benefit a company' A summary of categories of key causal factors as to why sustainable development is "good business" follows.